The Extra Step – Focus and Dedication – The Difference Between Greatness and Mediocrity

In today’s competitive world, races are no longer won by minutes but by milliseconds. The winner and the looser at election time are separated by slim margins. The odds are narrowing down, the competitions getting more fierce and the difference between success and failure in the business, professional and entrepreneurial world are getting smaller and smaller.

If we want to win and succeed we must have that winner’s edge, that little but significant distinction that separates the winners from those who will be lost in the crowd. It’s what will distinguish the ones who will be noticed from those who will stay in the shadows.

That small distinction is what will make the difference between the person who is awarded the contract and the one who will be thanked for sending a submission. The difference between the guy who will climb the ladder of success and the guy who will be thanked for his services.

In today’s world, being good is not enough. We are expected to be good. Being excellent will get us nothing but a passing grade. If we want to get ahead and succeed, we must be outstanding. That’s where the money is, that’s how we get the prize, that where the elevator goes to the top.

If being outstanding is so important, the subject needs further consideration and the question that begs to be asked is, “How do we get to be outstanding?”

Two simple words could answer that question. Focus and dedication. These two words may be closely related subjects but each deserve a special consideration.

Focus implies a specificity of purpose. The final objective must be specific and very well defined. That is just as true in the entrepreneurial field as it is in the corporate world. We no longer live in the world of jacks-of-all-trades. The competition is too fierce. The area of expertise and interest must be narrowed down to its acceptable limit.

Specificity of purpose does not exclude general culture. Its a must in affluent and well to do circles. But it does mean that conscious and judicious choices be exercised in time management. Priority must be given to the object of our focus.

Dedication means discipline, efforts and concentration. You don’t get to be a world class athlete by being interested in your discipline, you get there by being totally dedicated to it. The same applies to anyone who desire to become outstanding and succeed in a specific area of expertise.

The prize, the honors and the pure satisfaction go those who are truly on focus and exercise total dedication. That’s where being outstanding which is the winner’s edge is found. And that’s what is needed if there is to be any hope of achieving outstanding success. It’s the key to the brass ring. Focus and dedication equals outstanding success. Go for it.



Source by Dr. Raymond Comeau

Clay Pigeon Thrower – Build One Yourself

Trap throwers that are set to shoot clay targets from the ground and some that you hold and shoot in the air.

The trap throwers are specifically made for throwing the clay pigeon far because it can be hard for the hunter to do that on his own. These trap shooter can be good if you want to improve your skills in hunting birds or if you just want to be a better marksman.

Some people like to buy parts of the clay pigeon thrower and assemble it themselves, I do not recommend building your own trap thrower because it would be cheaper if you just bought it from a store. Assembling all the parts can be really difficult because you need to make sure the trap thrower spins the clay disks as it is being shot out of the thrower. You can buy a trap thrower from many big box stores or a sporting good store in your local area.

If you are looking to buy one online it can be expensive but from your local store you can get one under 100 bucks. To construct a clay trap thrower you will need to dig four holes to stand you posts in. Next you place the beams in and cement it. Once the beams are put in saw them off a foot from the ground and once that is done put the ply board panel on the beams so it will be the platform of your thrower.

I hope this article was useful to you I hope this comment was useful to anyone wants to learn more about clay target throwers. Have fun and be safe when shooting those pigeons.



Source by Jacek Prague

Coyote Hunting – A Beginner’s Guide for Successfully Calling Coyotes!

Coyote hunting is quickly becoming a popular pastime for hunters all across North America largely due to the sheer excitement it has to offer. There are few things that can get my adrenaline flowing faster than seeing a coyote rapidly closing on my position in response to the desperate pleas of my distress call. My goal here is to provide you with some basic strategies that can quickly get you up to speed on the basics of coyote calling, and help you experience the joy of calling coyotes. The tips and strategies I will discuss will be listed in order of importance to your success at calling coyotes.

The first and most important item that is crucial to your success at calling coyotes is scouting. It is a simple fact that you can’t call a coyote if there isn’t one there to be called. When you’re out in the field scouting look for scat and coyote tracks that will indicate coyotes are in the area. Also, take notes on where you repeatedly see coyotes, as these will be areas that you will want to target with your calling. Landowners are great resources to give you hints on where they are seeing coyotes on their land and where they feel would be good places to call. Look for areas that have a high concentration of the coyote’s prey, such as rabbits, prairie dogs, deer, and mice. If you seek out these types of areas, you’re sure to find coyotes.

Second in line for success at calling coyotes is set-up. How you set-up (position yourself) on stand to call is critical. Pay close attention to the direction of the wind at all times. The coyote’s sense of smell is highly adapted, and should not be ignored. When setting up, make sure you position yourself either with the wind directly in your face or with a crosswind. Coyotes are notorious for circling downwind to gain scent advantage, so the ideal set-up in my opinion would be with a crosswind and sufficient open area downwind to see any circling coyotes. It helps if you can hunt with a friend, and position him/her downwind to get any coyotes that circle your position. If you have one of the new remote controlled digital callers on the market, you can position the call upwind of your position and therefore be in the perfect position, as the coyote begins to circle. Just don’t position it to far away in case the coyote does decide to come directly into the position of the caller. It is also important to call with the sun at your back. This makes it more difficult for the coyote to see you, as they have to look directly into the sun when they approach. Another important aspect for setting up is to try and position yourself in the shade. By being in the shade, this will help conceal your position and make it more difficult for the coyote to see you. Now, putting all these items together would certainly be the perfect scenario, but in reality this isn’t always possible. Sometimes you have to sacrifice the position of the sun or your ability to sit in the shade in order to call a prime location. However, I never sacrifice wind direction in order to call an area. If the wind isn’t right, I wait to call that area another day.

The third item for successful coyote calling is camouflage. It is important to try and blend into your surroundings by matching your camouflage to the terrain you hunt. It is also critical to cover all exposed skin, including your face. Human skin is highly reflective and coyotes will pick up on this. Test this out for yourself by having a friend dress in full camouflage except for a face mask, and then have him conceal himself as if he were hunting. Now, step back several yards and see how easily he is to pick out. Now try the same experiment with your friend wearing a facemask. I bet you will be surprised at the difference. Another important component of camouflaging yourself is to limit movement when on stand. Coyotes have keen eyesight and will pick up on the slightest movement. If you must move, do so slow and deliberately.

Last but certainly not least, is the actual act of calling itself. Many of you may be surprised that I saved this for last. Don’t get me wrong, making the right sound is very important and you could be producing the most mournful distressed rabbit sound the coyote has ever heard, but unless you do all the above items correctly your chance of bagging it are greatly reduced. Learning how to use a mouth blown rabbit in distress call is a relatively simple task. Any of the calls on the market today are likely to work for you. If you don’t know the correct sound to make, I suggest buying one of the many videos on coyote calling that are on the market or buy a CD or cassette tape with a live rabbit in distress sound on it and practice along with it. Many beginners make the mistake of thinking they have to sound perfect in order to call a coyote. The truth of the matter is the coyote doesn’t care. As long as you sound like an animal in distress, you’re likely to get the attention of a coyote. The interesting thing about calling coyotes is that no two people sound exactly alike when using a particular call, but the sounds are all effective, and yours likely will be too. One other topic that hasn’t been mentioned is how long to call at each location. This depends on a lot of factors, but I typically stay 30 minutes on each stand, especially when calling open area. If you live in an area that is heavily wooded, you may only stay on stand 10-15 minutes because the sound won’t travel as far. When you are calling you will want to call for short intervals. For example, call for 20-30 seconds, wait 2 minutes, and repeat. Do this for the duration your on the stand.

These are the basics you will need to become a successful coyote caller. Study them closely and then get out in the field and call some coyotes. Once you do, I am sure you will be hooked for life just as I am. I wish you the best of luck.



Source by Mark Petersen

The 8 Must Have Items In Your Duck Hunting Gear

Every duck hunter knows you need to have a lot of duck hunting gear with you when you head out to the blind. The ability to carry all of this gear to and from the duck blind is no easy feat, so it is important to fill a blind bag and have it ready to go. When we compiled the following list, we have taken into account the fact that you already have a duck hunting gun, ammunition and decoys. So, to help you decide what duck hunting equipment is a necessity, we have listed the top eight items every waterfowl hunter should carry.

1. The first order of business and the first item on our list, is a high quality blind bag which can organize all of your gear. This is your primary piece of equipment. My favorite is the Avery Floating Blind Bag. It has enough room to carry everything a waterfowler needs. Not to mention its water repellant construction and buoyancy makes this bag an excellent choice.

2. There is no sense in going hungry while you are in the blind. Snacks and water are the next order of business. What types of snacks isn’t all that important, but items which are individually packed such as trail mix and cereal bars will be protected if, the unfortunate should happen and they get wet. Coffee or water can be taken; finding a thermos which floats is a good idea. Oh, by the way, while you’re at it, don’t forget some snacks for man’s best friend.

3. Many duck hunters head out to the blind in the pre-dawn hours much like their deer hunting counterparts. A ball cap light will help until the sun brightens up the landscape.

4. A jerk cord is a must have item. This is the simplest, yet most effective item to create motion on the water when mother nature doesn’t do it for you.

5. A good set of binoculars should be a given no matter what you are hunting. I would suggest a minimum of 8×42. This should be perfect for spotting the ducks off in the distance.

6. You never know when you will need to mend something or improvise a jerk cord in the field. Having an extra nylon cord is always a good idea. This simple, yet versatile piece of equipment can save you a lot of headaches when you are out at the blind.

7. Duck hunters spend many a cold morning in the blind. Having some hand and foot warmers will make the wait easier to take.

8. Last but definitely not least, a prepared duck hunter should have multiple duck calls to increase his chances of success. Consider having a double reed call, short reed goose call and a whistle call in your arsenal.

Being prepared when heading out to the duck hunting blind will make your duck hunting experience a more enjoyable and hopefully a more successful one. Having this essential duck hunting gear ready before you head out will help to eliminate any stress along the way.



Source by Keith Cantelmo

How Do You Maintain The Optimal Humidity In A Gun Safe?

When it comes to firearms, the optimal humidity in a gun safe is zero. Humidity causes rust to form on the steel construction of the guns kept while kept inside the safe; as well as allows moisture to accumulate in the gunpowder inside the ammunition. Neither are optimal conditions for your firearms and both can cause extremely dangerous accidents should you need to fire your weapons. If you use a gun or pistol safe, it is extremely important to take safety precautions, such as using gun safe anchor kits to prevent accidentally turning over the security device.

One excellent, and very popular though hard to find brand, is the Kingsbury gun safe. A beautiful copper finish completes the look. It is fireproof and features 5 adjustable shelves and an S&G lock system. If a vintage model is in your future, you might luck up on a Kingsbury gun safe online for about $600.

Providing the conditions to maintain the optimal humidity in a firearms safe was once nearly impossible, prior to the modern technologies that are available now to prevent it. Depending on the humidity levels in the air surrounding the safe, the steel walls could sweat and damage the firearms and ammunition kept inside. The majority of modern firearms safes are fireproof and waterproof; but don’t let that fool you. That only means that water is unable to enter from the outside of the safe if it is submerged. It does not mean that under the right conditions, the air inside the rifle or firearm safe will not contain moisture and cause the steel to sweat.

There are several products on the market that can be placed inside, with the firearms and ammunition, to insure the optimal humidity in a gun safe. One is a portable mini dehumidifier, which runs on a rechargeable battery and lasts 30-60 days between charges. Recharging releases the moisture trapped in water crystals, and gets it ready to absorb moisture for another 30-60 days. Another option is either a rechargeable desiccant container, or a container that can be placed in the oven to release the moisture from the desiccant crystals; then reinstalled to maintain the optimal humidity in a firearms safe. Any of these options will take care of an inside area of at least 35 cubic feet.

Many gun aficionados ask if an ammunition safe or firearms locker be kept in an unheated garage. The temperature surrounding the firearms safe is not the issue; it is the moisture content of that air. So, can a rifle safe or firearms locker be kept in an unheated garage? The answer is definitely yes, as long as there is a good moisture removal product inside of it. Even in the garage accidents can happen, so don’t forget to use the gun safe anchor kits.

The two most important things to remember about gun or ammo safes are: use anchor kits and secure locks to prevent accidents, and use products to remove odors and moisture inside the safe to maintain the optimal humidity in a gun safe.



Source by Mike S Williams

Gun Shy Dog – Prevention – Gunproof Your Dog

Almost all hunters and field trial enthusiasts have a fear or at least a concern about the possibility that their new promising gun dog prospect may become gun shy.

Hunting dog owners have over the years exposed their pups at a young age to noise such as banging feed pans at feeding time. they have fired cap pistols and later 22 caliber guns to get them ready for that first critical hunt. Some have played records of distant shots in the kennel during feeding time. Almost all these methods can’t hurt, but all are missing one thing, and that is the unmistakable booming report of a shotgun going off at a fairly close distance to the dog. Whether you have a duck dog or bird dog or a hound, sooner or later your dog will experience that unmistakable sound of the shot gun being fired at a close distance, and none of these other noises will have duplicated the shot guns blast.

There are however some steps that you can take to prevent “gun shyness” from happening. So let’s get started.

Step number 1

Make sure your dog has bonded to you, and knows you are his or her master. This means spending time with your dog. You should be the one feeding and training and doing most of the care giving.

Step number 2

Do not be in a hurry to introduce gunfire. It would be preferable to wait until your dog is at least six months old and has developed a strong desire to hunt and enjoys his training trips afield. Once your dog knows you as his master, enjoys his trips afield, and is excited about the game you are hunting, whether it is rabbits, birds, ducks or some other game, now is the time for the next step.

Step number 3

Plan a trip afield with a leash, a 20 gauge shotgun, your dog, one of his favorite treats, or his favorite game in a cage, and a friend of yours who is a stranger to your dog and now you are ready for your next step.

Step number 4

Once you are afield, have your “stranger friend” take your dog 100 yard away as you try to call him back to you. After your friend is 100 yards away and your dog most likely is straining to get back to his master, fire your shotgun into the ground. As soon as you fire, have your friend release your dog as you excitedly call him back. After your dog runs back to you, give him his treat, or let him smell the game you have brought with you and get him excited. Make a big production out of what has just happened, and let him smell your gun if he is interested.

Next, repeat step 4 at a closer distance of let us say 50 yards.

If all goes well repeat step 4 at a closer distance of let us say 25 yards.

Now that you are finished introducing your dog to gunfire, what you have really done is implemented a psychological principle of association. You dog now associated the firing of a shot gun with things that bring him pleasure-not only has he got back to the master he loves, but he has also associated gunfire with his favorite treat, and if you have it, his favorite game that he loves to hunt.

Step number 5

Your dog is now as they say “gun proof.”

Take your dog on his very first hunting trip with out the worry or concern of that “gun shy dog”

Happy hunting!



Source by Maxwell Scholz

Halo 4 Forerunner Walkthrough, How to Complete Mission 3 Alone on Legendary

“Forerunner” is the first mission in Halo 4 where you will encounter Prometheans, a faction of enemy new to the Halo franchise. In addition to new enemies, there are also new Promethean weapons that you will begin encountering in this mission. You will mostly use the light rifle, which is a 3-shot-burst headshot weapon similar to the UNSC battle rifle. You will need to use the light rifle as your headshot weapon throughout this mission. The Prometheans do not use covenant weapons, so you will rarely have access to a plasma pistol when fighting the them. Therefore, when you are fighting Promethean knights (the Promethean equivalent of elites), you will need to use different tactics to remove their shields. For the majority of this mission, you will use the Promethean suppressor, a fast firing assault rifle that deals high damage up close. Use a combination of your auto sentry (an armor ability), grenades, and suppressor fire to kill the Promethean knights. It is vital that you fight them alone, so be sure to kill any crawlers or watchers (the Promethean light infantry) in an area before you engage the knights.

You begin this mission inside of a forerunner teleporter hub with an assault rifle, a magnum, and a hard light shield. The hardlight shield is a practically useless armor ability, so swap it for one of the auto sentries located on the walls to either side of you. The auto sentry armor ability allows you to create a stationary, hovering turret that fires upon the enemies. Enemies will tend to shoot at the auto sentry instead of you, so it provides you with a great distraction. It also deals a fair amount of damage, so it helps you kill knights when fighting them with your suppressor. Once you launch the auto sentry, press the bumper again to recall it.

Walk into the main room of teleporter hub and insert Cortana into the mainframe. She will then create a teleporter to the first relay tower that you will need to disable in order to contact the UNSC Infinity. Jump through the vortex, and you will teleport into a cave a little ways away from the first relay tower. As you follow the path forward, you will see the first Promethean enemies; crawlers. Crawlers are somewhat similar to grunts; they can be killed with a single headshot and they wield the weakest weapons. Notice that the crawlers have much smaller heads than grunts, so you will need to aim carefully. Use your magnum to kill these crawlers with headshots, using the corner of the path as cover. If the crawlers begin to overwhelm you, launch your auto sentry and it will drive them back.

Follow the path until you turn into a large open area. Here, you will find 6 crawlers, a watcher, and a knight. Use the corner you just came around for cover and kill all of the crawlers first with your magnum. As long as you stay back, the knight will not approach you. Now, turn your attention to the watcher. Watchers are support infantry capable of shielding enemies, reviving knights, catching grenades, and spawning crawlers. Watchers do not have heads, so you usually need to kill them with multiple body shots from your headshot weapon. In this case though, your magnum is not strong enough to kill the watcher, so get up close and kill it with your assault rifle instead. If necessary, launch your auto sentry to draw the knight’s fire while you engage the watcher.

Now that only the knight remains, you can focus your attention on him. Knights are similar to the covenant elites, but they have stronger shields and smaller heads. This knight is equipped with a light rifle, which gives him high accuracy but low damage. Therefore, get as close as possible so that he cannot utilize his accuracy advantage. Launch your auto sentry so that it has a clear shot at him, then get up close and use your assault rifle to kill him. After his shields break, continue to shoot him with your assault rifle until he dies. Prometheans have much more shields than health, so once you see their shields break, you know they are almost dead. Swap your magnum for his light rifle, grab his pulse grenades, and swap your assault rifle for one of the crawler’s suppressors. Move into the forerunner room up ahead.

As you walk through the hallway, you should see two crates along the left wall with suppressors that you can use to restock ammo. As you exit through the door, a knight with a suppressor will attack you. The suppressor deals more damage per second than the light rifle, so you will need to be more careful when fighting this knight. Stay inside of the forerunner room and launch your auto sentry once the knight comes within range. Use the doorway as cover and step out to fire at him. Use your light rifle when he is far away and use your suppressor once he gets up close. If you see the knight stop to throw a pulse grenade at you, immediately throw a pulse grenade at his feet. Because knights cannot move when throwing grenades, you can easily get a direct hit from the explosion. Once his shields break, either charge up and finish him with your suppressor or stay back and finish him off with a light rifle headshot if your shields are low. Whatever you do, do not allow the knight to escape when his shields are low because his shields will regenerate very quickly.

Killing knights with headshots is much more difficult than killing other enemies with headshots. Not only do knights have the smallest heads of all of the infantry in Halo 4, they also have face gear protecting their head. While they sometimes detract this face gear naturally, you usually need to shoot them once in the face gear after you remove their shields to force them to retract it. Only then can you finish them with a headshot. 3-shot-burst guns like the light rifle or battle rifle can kill an unshielded knight with a single trigger pull because the first bullet removes their face gear and the second bullet kills them.

Move forward along the path to the left and you will come to more crawlers and a knight with a light rifle. Launch your auto sentry to draw the knight’s fire, kill the crawlers with light rifle headshots from the cover of the rocks, and then kill the knight with your suppressor. Notice that every knight drops two pulse grenades when they die, so feel free to use plenty of pulse grenades when fighting Prometheans. When you find yourself in a tough situation, you can throw a pulse grenade at a knight or a group of crawlers to cause them to dive away, giving you plenty of time to retreat to cover.

Continue down the path and you will come to a platform with many crawlers on the walls. These crawlers will begin jumping towards you once they see you. Kill them all from a distance with your light rifle. Run onto the platform and up the ramp to the right where you will find a Promethean crate with light rifle ammo. Restock on ammo and move to the forward edge of the platform where there is an opening in the wall. This opening provides you with a good sniping position over the enemies below, where you should see more crawlers, a watcher, and a Promethean battlewagon. Battlewagons are a higher ranking version of knights, and they are equipped with stronger shields and a scattershot. The scattershot is the Promethean equivalent of the UNSC shotgun, and it can kill you with a single shot up close. Therefore, you should engage battlewagons from a distance whenever possible.

Use your elevated perch as cover to kill all of the crawlers below with light rifle headshots. Step behind the wall to your left for cover if necessary. Kill the watcher with 3 – 5 body shots from your light rifle. Notice that the light rifle deals more damage when zoomed in, so be sure to use the scope when fighting watchers. As soon as a watcher starts glowing red, it only takes one more shot to kill it. Now you can focus your attention on the Promethean battlewagon. Because he is equipped with a scatter shot, you will need to engage him from a distance. If you stay where you are, he will come up behind you and kill you. Therefore, you should jump down into the area with the battlewagon, sprint through the cave along the right wall, and sprint up the dirt ramp to the top of the cliff ahead. The battlewagon will usually not follow you up here, so you can pick him off from a distance. Launch your auto sentry and then bombard him with either suppressor or light rifle fire until you kill him. If the battlewagon stops to throw a pulse grenade, throw a pulse grenade at his feet to kill him even faster.

Behind you is a door into another forerunner structure. Inside, follow the hallway until you see a detour to your left. Take this detour to restock on both light rifle and suppressor ammo, then return to the main hallway and continue outside. Ahead of you, there is a large area containing 3 shield generators. You will need to destroy each of these shield generators before you can access the relay tower. You begin on top of a cliff overlooking the area, which provides you with a good sniping position. Before you jump down this cliff, kill as many crawlers and watchers that you can see. Take cover in the rock inlet to your right. It is important that you kill all of the crawlers below you or else they will easily kill you as soon as you jump down the cliff.

Once the coast looks clear, launch your auto sentry to draw the enemies’ fire and jump down the left side of the cliff. Immediately jump down the next cliff to your left and back up against the corner. Wait here for the crawlers in the area to attack you, and kill them all quickly with headshots before they can reach you. Once you have safely dealt with all of these aggressive crawlers, you can begin destroying the shield generators. Hug the left wall until you come to the first structure with a shield generator (it is marked with a waypoint). There are some crawlers, a watcher, and a knight guarding this generator. Unless the knight is standing directly in front of the generator (which he usually is not), sprint into the room with the generator and melee it once to destroy it. You are safe in this room; no crawlers will come in and the knights rarely come in either. Therefore, stay in this room to pick off all of the crawlers (and the watcher if possible) with your light rifle. Take cover by standing right next to the light rifle crate in the room; the enemies will have a very hard time shooting you through the door if you stand here.

Once you have killed all of the crawlers, restock on light rifle ammo and exit the room to engage the watcher and knight. Kill the watcher with multiple light rifle body shots, then engage the knight with your suppressor. Be sure to launch your auto sentry before you engage the knight and get as close as possible to compensate for the suppressor’s low accuracy. Now, continue to the second shield generator. There are more crawlers, a watcher, and a knight guarding this shield generator. Stand behind one of the large rocks outside of the building for cover to kill all of the crawlers first. Then, find the watcher and knight (they will stick together) and kill the watcher, than the knight. You can then disable the shield generator.

Two knights guard the final shield generator. It is hard to fight 2 knights at the same time, so I suggest that you engage them one at a time. Follow the rock wall to your left until you see the outer wall protecting the shield generator room. Climb one of the ramps to get on top of the wall. From up here, position yourself so that only one knight can see you. Use a combination of your suppressor, pulse grenades, and/or auto sentry to kill the first knight you see. If necessary, jump backwards off the wall for cover. After killing the first knight, kill the second knight from atop the wall as well, then deactivate the final shield generator.

You can now enter the tower via a ramp in the back. However, two watchers and two knights guard the rear entrance. Take cover in the rocks behind the tower and kill the watchers with your light rifle from a distance. Then, engage the knights one at a time in the cover of the rocks. Be sure to use your auto sentry for help and retreat if the knights attempt to double team you. Once you have killed both of these knights, climb the ramp to the second level of the tower. On this level, there is a knight battlewagon. Because he has a scattershot, you will need to engage him carefully and from a distance. The battlewagon will usually wait behind a corner to ambush you, so bring him out of his corner with grenades. Once he is in the open, launch your auto sentry and engage him from a distance with your suppressor. Take cover behind any of the corners, or if you are desperate, jump off the tower.

Keep climbing to the top level of the tower and you will find a sky bridge crossing over to the relay tower. Cross over and ride the elevator to the top, then remove the core to clear up the signal you are receiving from the Infinity. However, you will need to deactivate the second station to clear up the remaining static, so Cortana will create a portal back to the teleporter hub that you began this mission in. If you were playing co-op and lost your auto sentry, you can now swap whatever armor ability you have for an auto sentry along the wall. Cortana will now create another teleporter to the second relay station.

Both covenant and Promethean forces are fighting for control of this second relay tower. In general, the Prometheans will have the upper hand, so you should try to kill the Prometheans to even out the fight. Therefore, more Prometheans and covenant will die fighting each other, making your job easier. Now that you are fighting the covenant again, you have access to covenant weapons, so you can use the loadout of a plasma pistol and a light rifle. Just like when you are fighting elites, overcharge the plasma pistol to remove a knights shields. Remember that it will then take two headshots to kill them (1 to detract their face gear, one to kill them). If you have trouble getting headshots, I highly suggest you keep using pure damage to kill the knights. Use the covenant needler instead of the suppressor as your secondary weapon; the needles of the needler home onto infantry and can kill a knight in only a magazine of ammo.

After exiting the cave you are in, you will come to the top of a ridge where some elites and grunts are fighting some crawlers. Use your light rifle to pick off the crawlers, then kill any covenant that survived. At this time, I would suggest that you swap your suppressor for either a needler or a plasma pistol from one of the grunts. Continue forward while you hug the left wall, and you will come up behind more covenant fighting a battlewagon and some light infantry. Because of their position relative to you, you will need to kill the covenant first. Usually, the Prometheans will remove the elite’s shields, allowing you to kill them with a headshot. Once only the Prometheans remain, launch your auto sentry and kill the crawlers and watchers with your light rifle, then the battlewagon with your plasma pistol or needler.

Turn your attention to the ledge along the far wall; this is where you will be going next. You should see many watchers and a laser turret on this ledge. Laser turrets are immobile Prometheans that fire a continuous laser at you, similar to the focus rifle from Halo Reach. This laser does not deal very much damage, must be powered up, and can be avoid by running around and jumping. Laser turrets do not have very much health, so kill this laser turret with one of the elite’s storm rifles. Burst fire the storm rifle at the turret until you can kill it, then swap back for the loadout of a light rifle and a plasma pistol or a needler. Pick off all of the watchers with your light rifle as well. If you run out of light rifle ammo, you can use one of the elite’s carbines instead.

At the far right wall, there is a dirt path leading up to the ledge. Take this dirt path up, and you will see another knight. Kill him with a plasma pistol and light rifle combination, or two super combines from a needler. Be sure to grab more light rifle ammo from behind the rock to your left as you continue forward. Continue along the ledge into the next section, where you will see a knight kill two elites in Ghosts. Kill this knight with your plasma pistol or needler, then enter either of the Ghosts. Drive the Ghost into the next section, where you will find many covenant and Promethean forces fighting. Hang back and use your Ghost’s plasma turrets to kill the enemies from a safe distance. Do not try to ram the enemies or they will damage your Ghost and easily dodge you. If you Ghost becomes severely damaged, drive back the way you came and swap it for a new one. After you kill all of the infantry, drive into the next section where you will find crawlers fighting grunts and jackals. Once again, use the Ghosts turret to kill these light infantry. Exit your Ghost and swap your secondary weapon for a fresh plasma pistol. You can then drive into the forerunner structure ahead.

If your Ghost is damaged, you can swap it for a new one along the wall ahead of you. Drive through the building and you will come to another relay tower with 3 shield generators protecting it. This area is laid out similarly to the first relay tower, but this time covenant forces protect the shield generators. There are 2 Banshees patrolling this tower, and since you have practically no protection from above, they pose a very large threat. Luckily, you have access to a Banshee that you can use to take them down. As soon as you drive your Ghost out of the forerunner structure, you will see an elite about to get into a Banshee directly in front of you. Immediately begin shooting him with your turrets until you take off his shields. This will cause him to pause and shake his fist, allowing you to easily ram him with your Ghost. You can now steal his Banshee.

Immediately fly the Banshee to a high altitude so that the infantry on the ground have a harder time shooting you. Destroy the enemy Banshees by first shooting them with a fuel rod, then finishing them with your plasma turrets. It is easiest to hit the Banshees with your fuel rod when they are flying directly at you. After you have killed both of the enemy aircraft, you will need to begin engaging the enemies on the ground. Land your Banshee on top of the hill along the middle of the left wall. You should see an unoccupied Banshee at the top of this hill. After you land, use the rocks as cover and begin picking off the grunts around the shield generator closest to you (towards where you came from). One Ghost patrols this shield generator, and if it is looking perpendicular to you, you can snipe the grunt out of it with your light rifle. Otherwise, you will need to hijack the Ghost. Be sure you have killed all of the grunts first, then EMP the Ghost with your plasma pistol as it approaches your hill. Jump down the hill and quickly hijack the Ghost before the EMP wears off. Drive to safety somewhere near the shield generator building and exit your Ghost. Approach the building on foot and be prepared to see an elite. Kill him with a plasma pistol and light rifle combination, then deactivate the shield generator by meleeing it.

Now, move on to the shield generator in the back left corner of the area. At this point, the enemies have moved around a lot form their spawning positions, so I cannot guarantee what you will find. If you see a Ghost between you and the shield generator room, take cover behind a rock or forerunner block and wait for it to approach you. Once the Ghost gets close to your cover, charge up your plasma pistol, EMP the Ghost, sprint up to it, and hijack it. If you want, you can use any Ghost you hijack to fight the enemies, but I prefer to stay on foot.

Once you reach the shield generator room, kill any enemies immediately around it and sprint into the room. Just like when you were at the relay station with the Prometheans, you will be safe inside of the room. Use it as cover and snipe as many grunts that you can see. There should be a fair number between you and the final shield generator. Most likely, there will also be a Ghost in your way as well. Perform the same strategy described above to hijack this Ghost. Notice that you can enter the main tower for cover if necessary. Once the path is clear to the final shield generator, approach it and kill any infantry you see along the way.

After you deactivate all of the shield generators and kill all of the infantry on the ground, focus your attention on the main tower. Climb the ramp to the second floor and watch your radar to determine the location of the two elites on this level. It is important that you know the location of the elites because they often try to sneak up behind you and/or stick you. Use any of the corners as cover and kill them one at a time with a plasma pistol and light rifle combination. Move up to the next level and be prepared to kill a third elite with a carbine. You can now proceed to the relay station to deactivate it.

After you deactivate the second relay tower, you can clearly receive Infinity’s transmition, but your suit transmitter is too weak to contact them. Therefore, you will need to reach Requiem’s core to warn them of the gravity well. Cortana will create a teleporter leading to the teleporter hub, and then another one leading to the core. As soon as you exit the second teleporter, you will find yourself in a large Promethean structure with a Phantom dropping 4 grunts and a jackal sniper ahead of you. There is no cover, so stay out of these enemies range and pick them off from a distance. Be sure you swap whatever secondary weapon you have for a fresh plasma pistol from one of the infantry; you will be fighting many covenant in the next area.

Where you are standing, there are two mirrored paths to the core. In both paths, you will find covenant fighting Prometheans, but on the left path, the Prometheans will dominate the covenant and on the right path, the covenant will dominate the Prometheans. This means that you will fight mostly Prometheans on the left path and mostly covenant on the right path. In this case, it is much easier to take the right path (not only are Prometheans stronger than covenant, you will be fighting Prometheans with one-hit-kill binary rifles). Therefore, I highly suggest you take the right path.

After you walk through the right door and up a ramp, you will be directly behind many covenant fighting Prometheans in the distance. These covenant will almost immediately overwhelm the Promethean forces. Kill any infantry directly in front of you, then enter the elevated room to the right via a ramp in the back. From here, you will have an high sniping position over the enemies in the area. You should see some grunts, some jackals, and 3 elites (one with a fuel rod gun.) Kill the light infantry with light rifle headshots from the room you are in, and back down the ramp or step behind the front doorway for cover. Wait for the elites to come to you and be careful, because they may come in behind you. You may consider placing your auto sentry behind you to help stop the enemies from sneaking up behind you. Kill the elites with an overcharged plasma pistol and light rifle headshot. Be sure you are in good cover when fighting the elite with the fuel rod gun and, if necessary, jump around and move sporadically to avoid his fuel rods.

Once you kill all of these enemies, the doors in the back of the area will open into a room. Restock on light rifle ammo from the crate to the right wall, then take the elevator up to the next section. You will enter into an area identically laid out to the one you were previously in. Once again, you are directly behind many covenant fighting Prometheans farther ahead. While the covenant are still focused on the Prometheans, kill the elite with a fuel rod gun directly in front of you with a plasma pistol and light rifle combination. The covenant will soon kill the Prometheans and move forward, so you once again should enter the elevated room to the left for a better sniping position. Once again, use your light rifle to snipe all of the light infantry and kill the elites once they come to you.

The two paths converge a short ways before the core, leaving you with one last fight. Walk up the ramp ahead of you and you will see a number of Promethean crates from which you can restock on light rifle ammo. Just past these crates, three elites (one with a fuel rod) are fighting a laser turret and three knights (one with a binary rifle). These enemies will usually not kill each other, so you will need to do most of the work. The elites will have their backs turned to you, so take this opportunity to stun and kill the fuel rod general while he is focused on the Prometheans. You can then easily finish of the other two elites with two more plasma pistol and light rifle combinations.

Now turn your attention to the three knights. Be careful because the knight in the back has a binary rifle. The binary rifle is an incredibly powerful sniper rifle that can kill you with a single body shot. When the knight is about to fire, a red halo appears over his head. As soon as you see this, take cover immediately. You need to kill the other two battlewagons before you can engage the binary rifle knight. To do this, use either your plasma pistol or the fuel rod gun from the elite general. Be sure that you stay in cover behind the forerunner blocks so that the binary rifle knight cannot snipe you. Also, remember to launch your auto sentry to draw the fire of the battlewagons while you engage them. If you choose to use a plasma pistol, remove the knights’ shields and then kill them with a few headshots. If you choose to use the fuel rod, get close to them and bombard them with multiple fuel rods. It will take 2 – 4 shots to kill each knight.

Once only the binary rifle knight remains, you will need to approach him carefully. Move between the different pieces of cover until you get close to him. The closer you are to him, the harder time he will have hitting you. Once you are at very close range, jump around a lot and kill him with either a plasma pistol and headshot combination or multiple fuel rods. If you ran out of ammo in both of these, you can also use a suppressor from the crates that you passed earlier.

After you kill the last knight, you can approach Requiem’s core and use it to contact the Infinity. Unfortunately, the core was actually imprisoning the forerunner Diadact, and using it as a transmitter releases him. He will then begin destroying the area, so you will need to escape to the outside of Requiem. You end the cut scene with 4 Ghosts in front of you, so enter one of these Ghosts to begin your escape. Cortana will feeds your suit’s energy into the boost of the Ghost, so it has unlimited boost and boosts faster than normal. You will need to drive along a long dirt path with many jumps and tight turns until you can escape Requiem. Stop boosting whenever you are making a sharp turn to turn more easily, and use the boost before and during a jump so that you can reach the other side. After you follow the path for around 2 minutes, you will finally see a portal at the end of a large jump. Hit the jump with full boost and you will teleport to Requiems surface. That concludes “Foreruner”.



Source by Matthew G Calligaro

Gun Cleaning Guide – Cleaning a Shotgun, Rifle Or Handgun Like a Pro!

Step 1

Scrub out your gun bore with the correct size Phosphor bronze brush and use Bor-Solv supreme bore solvent. This will if used vigorously remove all powder fouling and residue. Occasionally a Bristle brush may be preferred as being made of natural hair it is hydroscopic. This fact will help this brush retain more of it’s bore solvent chemical and for a longer period. In some applications a bristle brush can therefore be an improvement over a phosphor bronze brush. This method however, is now more commonly used in Europe.

Step 2

After scrubbing out using both sides of a Herringbone 4″x 2″ patch in a Split brass or Nylon jag. This will remove all the contaminated solvent. The split jag is used by inserting a patch midway and longitudinally into the split and then rotating the patch in your hand in the direction you are going to tighten the patch and also twist the rod in use. Always check the chamber when cleaning and if there is powder residue around the forcing cone use a Chamber brush handle with a Payne Galway chamber brush to remove residue build up.

Step 3

Next oil the gun bores by using a clean Wool mop and some liberally applied Rangoon oil. Rangoon being a tenacious and slow evaporating oil allows the gun bore to be stored away for longer periods than usual. Occasionally wash out the wool mop with warm soapy water. Use paraffin or turps first if the mop is very dirty. Then when the mop is dry re-soak in clean Rangoon oil and we recommend you keep the mop in a fresh polythene sleeve or similar container.

Step 4

When storing your gun do not forget to first relieve the tension of the main springs by inserting a suitable pair of Snap caps and dry firing the gun. Then after if you install a Muzzle stuffer this will with the snap caps in place not only keep the oil vapour inside the barrel, but will also keep the dirt out and protect the end of the barrels against damage in your gun cabinet

Step 5

Before firing the gun again it is important to remove all trace elements of oil. Oil remaining in the barrel however slight could seriously rival the barrel walls due to hydraulic conversion process. Remove all superfluous oil with a patch and jag turning the patch over until it is clean. Always check the chamber before firing and if there is powder residue around the forcing cone remove it with a chamber brush. We advise you never to force a Payne Galway type chamber brush down the barrel as this type of brush will eventually come apart and may also damage the gun.

Tips and Final Word…

When cleaning a rifle or pistol use the same technique as for a shotgun except replace the split brass jag for a Diamond jag and change patch to the natural flannel type Rifle patch. To use the diamond jag place the jag diagonally across the patch at the end and rotate until the patch has wound fully around the jag. If the patched jag is too big for the bore in diameter, unroll a little of the patch at a time, trim and rewind same until the correct interference diameter is obtained. When cleaning continue to change the patches until the last patch discarded is entirely clean.

Lastly we would offer this good advise. Never be tempted to use a set of Gunmakers Turnscrews unless you are absolutely sure that the Turnscrew blade has been precision ground to the exact size of the slot in your gun screw and the tool steel is properly hardened. Engraved gun screws are very expensive to repair and the incorrect sized blade can very quickly cam out of the screw in question and may damage the gun screw or the finish on the gun. In some cases even injury to the user can occur. If you are unsure always ask you gun dealer for advise. If you must use a turnscrew on your gun make your that it is of good manufacturer not a cheap and poorly made import.

I hope this guide has helped you, feel free to contact the author with questions.



Source by Jamie P. Johnson

History of Big Game Hunting – Sport Or Survival?

The history of big game hunting is as old, or older, than man. Depending on your beliefs, big game hunting technically can go back to pre-man animals who hunt each other. For this discussion, however, we will limit to man.

In man’s history, hunting was essential to survival. Even after the skills of farming and cultivation were spread, man continued to hunt meat. As time went on, man’s hunting expanded to sport, for skin, and trophy heads. And, some unscrupulous hunters ignored laws and poached certain animals, which almost led to extermination of some species.

Today, big game hunting is an extremely popular sport. It requires licenses or permits in most areas, and big game definition varies slightly with geographical areas. However, the general range of big game includes the following animals:

Deer, Mule Deer, Coues Deer – and other varieties

Bear – various varieties

Antelope

Buffalo

Musk Ox

Water Buffalo

Lion

Mountain Lion, Cougar

Big Horn Sheep – and other varieties

Boar

Elephant

Moose – various varieties

Elk – various varieties

Wolf

Hippopotamus

Rhinoceros

Elephant

Leopard

Caribou

Rocky Mountain Goat

Big game animals have not been without threats of extinction, from overkill, and because of this conservation programs and limiting permits and licenses have worked to prevent elimination of some big game species. Part of the history of big game hunting is the conservation efforts that continue today. It is this and sportsmanship, and tough poaching laws that have maintained the ability of man continuing to do big game hunts as time passes.

Modern big game management began in 1922 with the establishment in New York of the National Collection of Heads and Horns, located in the Bronx Zoo. This was followed in the next decades by other conservation and record keeping associations. The 13th edition of the book “Records of North American Big Game” will be published in 2011. Records are based on a scoring system of points for each type of animal.

In the U.S., different states have different seasons for hunting, depending on the animals hunted, and mating seasons and birthing times. In other countries, they have their own sets of laws for big game hunting. Africa is noted for large species, and fierce animals such as the lion, which is carefully protected and hunting is limited. When there is a limited availability of licenses or permits, competition and prices are high. For example, an out of state hunting license for bull buffalo in Arizona can run over $5400 for the permit.

The high prices tend to restrict big game hunting to those persons having an amount of time and wealth, although many ordinary people will hunt smaller game like deer, which are more plentiful and have more permits.

The history of big game hunting will continue to record trophy animal hunting as long as conservation and protection efforts continue. This will allow big game hunting to be a pleasure for many hunters, and a goal for others to strive to do at a future time.



Source by Adam Leeds

Tahr Hunting in New Zealand

About New Zealand Tahr

The Himalayan Tahr, originally from the areas around Tibet, were introduced to the Southern Alps of the South Island of New Zealand around 1904 to 1906. Initially considered a pest, the New Zealand government controlled the Tahr herds with government sharpshooters and aircraft. Over the last twenty years, the Tahr hunting status has changed from being unwanted pests to a manageable, renewable and valuable resource to many local and overseas trophy hunters.

The Tahr is a majestic animal found on hillside rocky outcroppings with their long “lion like” mane blowing in the wind. This is truly a majestic sight. When put to chase, the Tahr hunter will be in awe of their climbing abilities in the steep New Zealand Alpines they call home.

The Himalayan Tahr is close relative to the free range mountain goat. A Tahr has relatively short legs and small head with large eyes and small pointed ears. Their hooves have a flexible, rubbery core that allows them to grip smooth rocks, while a hard sharp rim can lodge into small footholds. Tahr inhabits steep broken mountainous landscapes ranging from 3000′ to 8000′ above sea level. Males are much larger and have different coloration and horn structure than the females. Adult Himalayan Tahr can weigh from 300 to 400 pounds and stand 2½ to 3 feet tall. The nannies (females) only weigh 45-55 pounds. This is one of the largest “pair” ratio differences between any mammals in the world. Himalayan Tahr are herbivores, subsisting on tall alpine “tussock” grasses and shrubs. Himalayan Tahr can be found in herds from 2-25 animals and can live up to 14 years old in the wild.

What makes a Trophy Bull Tahr?

A Bull Tahr has horn bases of 8-9″ and a sharp round curled horn of 10 to 14 inches. A Tahr Hunter will judge a good trophy male by its long mane as well as its horns although record book scoring only uses a combination of the base horn diameter and length of both horns. Most Tahr hunting guides will look for horns over 11 inches in length. Tahr horns of 12.5 to 13.5 inches are considered an above “trophy” average and horns over 14″ are exceptional. There have been a few New Zealand Tahr taken with horns over 15″ and these usually fall into the SCI Top 10 Record Category.

When should I plan my Tahr Hunting Trip?

Like Chamois hunting, Tahr Hunting can be done year. The ideal time to hunt Tahr is during New Zealand’s late fall and winter. By Tahr hunting in winter, the Tahr will have their winter coats and manes. A Tahr’s mane can grow 5-8″ in length from February to early June and turn darker in color. Late May, June, July and August are ideal months to hunt Tahr and chamois. The Tahr rut runs late May thru July which usually correlates with the first snow of the season. The rut is an excellent time for Bow hunting. Tahr can be hunted in conjunction with the red stag “roar” or rut in March and April but the hunter will have to work harder to find a Tahr with a long mane at that time of year. The coats will also be lighter in color before winter sets in.

What is the best way to hunt New Zealand Tahr?

Most Tahr hunting mountains are accessible by two-tracks or fire trails up to the tops of the mountains. Hunters usually glass the mountainsides in the early mornings and again in the late afternoon and then hunt down the mountains and are greeted by the outfitters vehicle below. Tahr hunting terrain can range from 3′ tall tussock grass to rock and shale hillsides. In most cases, the physical demand for this type of hunt is a lot less than that of Mountain Goat or Sheep hunting. You should allow at least 2 days for a rifle Tahr hunt (in good weather) and 3-4 days with a bow for a good specimen. If you are strictly record book trophy hunting, you can easily double that time period.

What about Tahr hunting by Helicopter?

Helicopter assisted Tahr hunting enables hunters to access the more remote mountainous areas where there are excellent trophy animals. It also gives greater assurance of success if the hunter has a limited time in New Zealand to hunt. Helicopter assisted hunting can be an exciting alternative with spectacular flights, and the opportunity to take an exceptional trophy. It is important to note that the helicopter is only used as a mode of transportation and animal recovery. Hunters are not allowed to shoot, drive or herd animals from the air. The Tahr hunters spot their trophy from the helicopter and are taken to an area when they can pursue their spot and stalk by foot. This type of hunting does contain a element of caution as you will be exiting a moving aircraft on an unknown mountain ledge.

What do I need to take with me on a Tahr hunt?

Most Tahr hunting is done in the higher elevations of the New Zealand Alpines. Some of these mountains are covered with 2-3′ tall clumps of Tussock Grass and some are rocky outcroppings of rocks and broken shale. Starting in June, these same mountains could also have snow on them. Make sure you have good boots that are broken in. Since you may be hunting in snow, you will want your boots insulated and waterproof. If you are hunting on a mountainside of tussock grass, wear a good pair of gators. The gators will keep the snow or morning dew from getting your hunting pants wet and cold. Premium optics is essential. Buy the best “glass” you can afford. I recommend a binocular harness as it will come in handy when traversing shale and lose rocks. This will keep your binoculars from getting bounced around or worse, banged on a rock. Most Tahr rifle shots will be in the 150 to 250 yard range. A good range finder will come in handy for both rifle and bow hunters. At 300 plus pounds, the Tahr is a good size trophy animal. I would recommend 7mm or larger and 164 grain or larger expandable bullet. A good 3,000 fps.30 caliber with an 180 grain expandable bullet is ideal for Tahr. Your rifle should be equipped with a good quality scope in the 3×9 or 2.5×10 magnification. I would also recommend a good backpack that is capable of carrying your rifle or bow. This will keep your hands free when moving across the mountainsides. If you are bow hunting, a good bow hunting guide can usually get you within 40-50 yards of your Tahr during the rut. Taking a trophy Tahr is quite an accomplishment with a bow. Allow yourself extra hunting days. Your biggest challenges in Tahr hunting are the nannies giving their warning whistle as you stalk your Bull Tahr.

How should I have my Tahr taxidermy mounted?

I recommend that all Tahr hunters, especially first time Tahr hunters, really think about how you want your bull Tahr mounted. A shoulder mount is the most economical taxidermy mount but it really doesn’t give justice to the long hair on the Tahr’s mane. Here is a tip for your first (or only) Tahr Hunting trip.

Have the guide cape it out for a full body mount. It will be 4-months before you get the cape back to the USA and probably several more months before your taxidermist will send it out for tanning. This will give you some extra time to decide (and save up) whether or not you want to do a shoulder mount or a full body mount. If your guide capes it out for a shoulder mount in the field, you are stuck with your choice. The full body bull Tahr mount is spectacular and will be a highlight to any hunter’s man cave or trophy room. You may also want to consider taking a Nanny Tahr. Some outfitters will let you harvest a Nanny for a few hundred dollars in conjunction of taking a bull Tahr at their standard trophy fee. A Bull & Nanny Tahr make a great pedestal mount.

Global Sporting Safaris, a hunting consultant company, offers the best opportunity for Tahr hunting in New Zealand. Whether you are a bow hunter, muzzleloader, crossbow hunter or rifle hunter, we have the locations, guides and experience to put you on the trophy Tahr hunt of a lifetime.



Source by Rick K Kennerknecht